Text for Family Economics Review [1964, Number 3]

              For Building U
~
MICS
EW
e Only
Consumer and Food Economics Research Division, Agricultural Research Servi4·t•,
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ~~~illi~lil~~irtli~~Jl~~it~
A quarterly report on current developments in family and food economics and economic aspects
of home management, prepared for home economics agents and home economics specialists of
the Cooperative Extension Service.
CONTENTS
Spending of Rural Nonfarm Families . .... . ....... .. ...... ... ... · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·
How Much of the Budget Goes for Food? . . . . . . . ..... .. .... · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·
The Stability of Family Spending in the Face of Income Change ..... . · · .. · · · · · · · · · · · · ·
More Married Women in Labor Force ................ .. . . · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·
Laundering Costs: Home vs. Self-Service .. .. ....... · · . · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·
Census Projections of Population in 1970 and 1985 ...... . .... · .. · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·
USDA Control Over Pesticides Improved ...... ............. · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·
Family Food Plans, Revised 1964 ..... . ......... . .. .. ... ·. · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·
Consumer Prices . . . ......... ... ..... · .. · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·
Three New Publications ........ . . . ............... · · . · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·
ARS 62-5
October 1964
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3
SPENDING OF RURAL NONFARM FAMILIES
Rural nonfarm families (including single consumers) spent about $4,300, on the average, for
current living in 1961 (table 1). In addition, their contributions and gifts averaged $221 and
their expenditures for life insurance and retirement funds about $241. After paying $468 for
income and other personal taxes, they had average money incomes of $4,700. These facts are
from the Survey of Consumer Expenditures, made by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics and the
U.S. Department of Agriculture. The families and single consumers interviewed were represen­tative
of the entire rural nonfarm segment of the United States.
Rural nonfarm families used 26 percent of their total current living expenditures for food
and beverages. Shelter (rent or expense for an owned home) and fuel, light, refrigeration, and
water took 17 percent. Another 17 percent went for transportation. This was mainly ( 16 per­cent)
for purchase and operation of automobiles, which most rural families now consider a nec­essity.
More than eight out of ten of the rural nonfarm families owned a car-and many of
these had two or more. Because many live where they must use a car to reach the places they
want to go-to work, shopping, to cl;wrch, to school, to town, or to meetings-auto expense runs
high.
Next in importance after food and beverages, shelter and utilities, and transportation (which
together took about 60 percent of the living expenditure) came expense for clothing, which took
10 percent; medical care (including health insurance and prepayment plans as well as direct pay­ments),
7 percent; housefurnishings and equipment, 6 percent; and household operations, 5 per­cent.
The remaining 12 percent was divided among personal care, recreation, reading and edu­cation,
tobacco, and miscellaneous spending.
Table !.-Average expenditures and incomes, rural nonfarm families and single consumers in 1961.
Percent of expenditures
Average per family for current consumption
Total Total
rural Inside Outside rural Inside Outside
Item nonfarm SMSA's' SMSA's' nonfarm SMSA's' S:\1SA'E.'
Dollars Dollars Dollars
Expenditures for current consumption _____ 4,296 5,657 3,806 100.0 100.0 100.0
Food and beverages ___________________ 1,133 1,429 1,026 26.4 25.2 27.0
Tobacco ------------------------------ 85 100 80 2.0 1.8 2.1
Housing, total ------------------------ 1,189 1,660 1,018 27.7 29.3 26.7
Shelter, fuel, light, refrigeration, and
vrater ---------------------------- 727 1,039 613 16.9 18.3 16.1
Household operations ---------------- 222 308 191 5.2 5.4 5.0
Housefurnishings and equipment_ _____ 240 313 214 5.6 5.5 5.6
Clothing, materials, services ___________ 408 547 358 9.5 9.7 9.4
Personal care ________________________ 123 158 111 2.9 2.8 2.9
Medical care _________________________ 297 384 266 6.9 6.8 7.0
Recreation --------------------------- 165 231 141 3.8 4.1 3.7
Reading and education _________________ 68 95 58 1.6 1.7 1.5
Automobile purchase and operation ____ 700 858 643 16.3 15.2 16.9
Other transportation ___________________ 37 62 28 .9 1.1 .7
Other expenditures ___________________ 91 133 77 2.1 2.4 2.0
Gifts and contributions _________________ 221 300 193
Personal insurance _____________________ 241 360 199
Money income before taxes ______________ 5,168 6,973 4,516
Money income after taxes _______________ 4,700 6,220 4,150
1 Standard metropolitan statistical areas; i.e., cities of 50,000 or more and surrounding closely related counties.
About one-fourth of the rural nonfarm families lived in standard metropolitan statistical
areas (SMSA's)-in counties adjacent to cities of 50,000 population or over, but outside the
densely populated areas. These "close-in" rural families had incomes and expenditures consid­erably
higher, on the average, than the rural nonfarm families further removed from large cit­ies.
They had $2,070 more after-tax income and spent $1,850 more for current living. They
also made larger gifts and contributions and paid more for life insurance.
4
As compared with other rural nonfarm families, those living in the "close-in" areas spent a
smaller percentage of their family living dollar for food and beverages and for automobile pur­chase
and ope1·ation, but a higher percentage for shelter and utilities. Other differences in the
spending patterns of the two groups were minor.
Regional Differences
Average incomes and expenditures for current consumption were highest in the Northeast
and West, the regions with the smallest rural nonfarm populations, and lowest in the South, where
40 percent of the rural nonfarm families are located (table 2).
The distribution of expenditures for current consumption was much the same in the four re­gions.
The largest difference occurred in shelter and utilities. Here the spread was four per­centage
points. Families in the South spent the the smallest percentage for this category, fam­ilies
in the Northeast the largest.
Table 2.-Average expenditures and incomes by rural nonfarm families in 1961, by region.
Average per family
Item North-~ North I I east Central South West
Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars
Expenditures for current consumption 5,342 4,190 3,615 5,090
Food and beverages _____________ 1,385 1,127 966 1,288
Tobacco ------------------------ 107 77 82 82
Housing, totaL _________________ 1,555 1,195 954 1,354
Shelter, fuel, light, refrigeration,
and water ------------------- 1,008 765 534 819
Household operations ------------- 265 204 203 253
Housefurnishings and equipment_ _ 282 226 217 282
Clothing, materials, services ______ 486 386 363 482
Personal care ------------------- 136 113 118 144
~edical care -------------------- 329 288 270 353
Recreation ---------------------- 230 148 119 246
Reading and education ____________ 97 68 50 83
Automobile purchase and operation_ 856 686 581 866
Other transportation ------------- 52 32 32 42
Other expenditures --------------- 109 70 80 150
Gifts and contributions ____________ 254 209 207 243
Personal insurance ________________ 343 234 192 260
~oney income before taxes _________ 6,339 5,197 4,320 5,988
~oney income after taxes __________ 5,710 4,697 3,977 5,438
Comparison with City Families
Percent of expenditures tor
current consumption
North-~ North I I east Central South West
100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
25.9 26.9 26.7 25.3
2.0 1.8 2.3 1.6
29.1 28.5 26.4 26.6
18.9 18.2 14.7 16.1
5.0 4.9 5.6 5.0
5.3 5.4 6.0 5.5
9.1 9.2 10.0 9.5
2.5 2.7 3.3 2.8
6.2 6.9 7.5 6.9
4.3 3.5 3.3 4.8
1.8 1.6 1.4 1.7
16.0 16.4 16.1 17.0
1.0 .8 .9 .8
2.0 1.7 2.2 2.9
The after-tax income of the rural nonfarm families was about $1,200 less than that of city
families in 1961, and family living expenditures about $1,100 less. Biggest differences in the
spending patterns of the rural nonfarm and city families were the larger percentage spent for
shelter and utilities by the city families (18.5 compared with 16.9 percent) and the smaller per­centage
spent for automobile transportation (12.8 and 16.3 percent, respectively). Clothing ex­penditures
took a somewhat larger percentage of the city than the rural nonfarm family dollar
(10.5 percent, as compared with 9.5 percent).
Source: Many more details about the expenditures of rural nonfarm families are available in the
following reports: Consumer Expenditures and Income, 1961; Rural Nonja1·m A1·eas: United
States, BLS Rept. No. 237-88; USDA Rept. CES-10; Northeastern Region, BLS Rept. No. 237-
84; USDA Rept. CES-6; North Central Region, BLS Rept. No. 237-85; USDA Rept. CES-7;
Southern Region, BLS Rept. No. 237-86; USDA Rept. CES-8; Western Region, BLS Rept. No.
237-87; USDA Rept. CES-9.
5
HOW MUCH OF THE BUDGET GOES FOR FOOD?
A recent letter asked us to explain the difference between two quotations from newspapers
on the percentage of the budget going into food. The first said that 19 percent of U.S. disposable
income was spent for food last year ( 1963). The second said that 26 percent of the average
urban family's expenditures went to food in 1960-61. Because others may find similar confus­ing
figures, we are giving an explanation here.
Several facts may be noted that account for the difference in these percentages, aside from
the difference in the time period:
(1) One of the figures (19 percent) is a percentage of income; the other (26 percent) is a
percentage of total expenditures for current consumption. Since income is a larger figure than
the expenditure for current consumption, a percentage based on income will be smaller than one
based on expenditures.
(2) The 19 percent applies to the total U.S. population, while the 26 percent applies to the
urban population only. ·
(3) The 19 percent refers to food only, while the 26 percent refers to food and alcoholic bev­erages.
( 4) The figures come from different sources. The 19 percent is derived from Department of
Commerce estimates of personal consumption expenditures and personal disposable income,
which are part of the data frequently referred to as the national income and product accounts.1
The 26 percent is from the recent Survey of Consumer Expenditures conducted by the Bureau
of Labor Statistics. 2
The two percentages given in the letter are not the only ones you may see quoted as the per­centage
of the budget used for food. Data from the national income and product accounts and
the expenditure survey may be used to calculate this percentage in various ways. These are
shown below, with the 1961 figures for each. (The Consumer Expenditure Survey figures are
for the urban population only. Corresponding figures for the total U.S. population will be avail­able
later this year. Indications are, however, that the addition of the rural population to the
urban will not materially change the percentages.)
Food as a percentage of-
Total personal income
Disposable personal income
Expenditures for consumption
Food and alcoholic beverages as a percentage of­Total
personal income
Disposable personal income
Expenditures for consumption
National
income and
product
accounts
(Percent)
17.0
19.5
21.1
19.5
22.3
24.1
Consumer Expenditure
Survey
ru1·ban families)
(Percent)
19.3
21.9
24.3
20.6
23.4
25.9
The percentages from the national income and products accounts data are consistently
smaller than those from the Consumer Expenditure Survey data. The main reason is that both
income and total consumption expenditure (the denominator in figuring the percentages) are
larger in the national accounts than in the survey data. This is because-
(1) The national accounts data include the income and personal expenditures of nonprofit
institutions as well as of families and single individuals, whereas the survey data include only
the latter;
'Published annually in the July issue of Survey of Current Business.
• Consumer Expenditures and Income, United States, 1960-61. BLS Report No. 237-38, April 1964.
6
(2) The national accounts data include more nonmoney income, notably the net rent of
owner-occupied houses and the value of food and fuel produced and consumed on farms;
(3) The national accounts include income and personal expenditures of military personal
living on posts, and the value of food and clothing furnished them, whereas the survey data do
not;
(4) Respondents in household surveys tend to understate some kinds of income and ex­penditure.
Food expenditures differ in the two sets of data also. Sometim~s the .difference aff~cts .the
percentages in one direction, sometimes in the other. For example, mcl.udmg nonprofit m~btu­tions-
as the national accounts do-tends to reduce the percentage of mcome and expenditure
going to food and alcoholic beverages, because such institutions spend relative!~ little for these
items. On the other hand including military personnel living on posts tends to mcrease the per­centage,
because food is a iarger proportion of total consumption for this group . th.an for the
population as a whole. Including food produced and consumed on farms has a s1m1lar effect.
The tendency of respondents in household surveys to underestimate ~heir SJ?ending for alco­holic
beverages is reflected ip the percentages. For example, the proportion of mcome spent for
food and alcoholic beverages is only 1.3 percentage points higher than that for food alone when
based on survey data, but 2.5 points higher based on the national accounts data.
It is evident that the person who is comparing budget percentages spent for food in on.e year
with those in another must be sure to use figures from the same source, and calculated m the
sa,me manner.
-Faith Clark
THE STABILITY OF FAMILY SPENDING IN THE FACE
OF INCOME CHANGE
The income a family receives in any one year has much less effect than its long-term in­come
position on its spending for family living. This is strikingly shown in a report on the in­come,
spending, and saving of 65 members of the Southwestern Minnesota Farm Management
Service who kept complete accounts for the farm and family.1
The members of this management association operate farms that are larger and more pro­ductive
than the average farm in the area. Their average income in 1963 was $4,967 before
taxes (see table). Although in general these farmers have higher than average managerial
ability, like all farmers they, too, have their good years and their "off" years. The 20 percent
whose farms were most profitable in 1963 reported incomes averaging $12,111. The 20 per­cent
whose farms were least profitable lost money on their farms but had just enough income
from other sources to balance their farm losses, leaving nothing from current income for family
living.
The group with the least profit spent only $50 less for family living than the group with the
most profit, on the average, in spite of the fact that it had nothing left from current income for
this purpose. The report does not indicate the extent to which these families having an "off"
year used savings for living, or what debts they accumulated during the year.
Current living expenditures of the groups with the most and the least profit were both with­in
$100 of the average for the entire 65 families-$3,854. Interestingly enough, both extremes
spent more than the group average. Moreover, their patterns of spending resembled each other
and the group average.
'Nodland, T. R. ~963 Annual Rep?rt of t~e Southwes~ern Minnesota Farm Management Service. Report
No. 276, Dept. of Agr1cultural Econom1cs, Institute of Agrtculture, St. Paul, Minn. June 1964 (proc.)
7
Although families did not modify their living patterns materially to adjust to short-term
income changes, these changes are reflected in other uses of income. Families whose farms
showed least profit tended to defer major outlays for consumer capital goods. They spent an
average of only $46 for new automobiles as compared to $157 spent by families whose farms
showed most profit and $132 by all families. (These figures refer to the portion of automobile
expenditure chargeable to family use.) They also spent considerably less on new houses and
house improvements-$192 compared with $615 and $388. Quite naturally, those having an "off"
rear ~ade practically no new nonfarm investments. Those having a good year invested $1,357
m this way.
-Jean L. Pennock
Household and Personal Expenditures and Income of Families Keeping Farm and Home Accounts,
Southwestern Minnesota, 1968
Item
All
families
(65)
Dollars Percent
Total living expenses__________________________ 3,854
Food and meals_____________________________ 1,084
Operating and supplies______________________ 465
Furnishings and equipment_______________ ___ 272
Clothing and clothing materials______ ________ 425
Personal care and spending_________________ 150
Education and recreation___________________ 350
Gifts and special events_____________________ 141
Medical care ------------------------------- 450
Church and welfare_________________________ 255
Family share of automobile, operation________ 227
Upkeep on dwelling_________________________ 35
Other outlays -------------------------------- 2,026
Automobile purchase ----------------------- 132
New dwelling and dwelling improvements_____ 388
Taxes ------------------------------------- 478
Life insurance ----------------------------- 494
Other nonfarm savings and investment_______ 534
Income --------------------------------- ----- 4,967
Return to capital and family labor________ ____ 4,184
Income from outside investments_____________ 113
Other personal income_______________________ 670
Average family size (persons)------ ----------- 4.8
1 0.5 percent or less.
Note: Detail may not add to totals because of rounding.
Source: Institute of ,Agriculture, St. Paul, Minn.
100
28
12
7
11
4
9
4
12
7
6
1
Families on-
13 most
profitable farms
Dollars Percent
3,953 100
1,068 27
448 11
276 7
451 11
212 5
362 9
138 3
435 11
253 6
269 7
41 1
3,346
157
615
545
672
1,357
12,111
11,370
14
727
5.5
13 least
profitable farms
Dollars Percent
3,907 100
1,137 29
402 10
252 6
403 10 '
170 4
378 10
167 4
450 12
253 6
277 7
18 l
1,055
46
192
461
345
11
15
-1,129
86
1,058
4.3
MORE MARRIED WOMEN IN THE LABOR FORCE1
Married women (husbands present) have recently been entering the labor market at a
stepped-up rate. The U.S. labor force increased about 1.1 million persons between March 1962
and March 1963. More than half (576,000) of the additional workers were married. women.
Other women (single, separated, divorced, or widowed) accounted for 11 percent of the mcrease,
and men for 38 percent.
Married women 45 to 64 years old led the movement of wives into paid employment last
year. They increased the labor force by 336,000; wives under 45 upped it by an other 279,000.
(See table). The number of married women workers 65 years. of age or over decreas~d by
39,000. The median age of wives in the labor force was 42 years m March 1963, 4 years higher
than in 1947.
1 "Marital and Family Characteristics of Workers, March 1963," by Vera C. Perella. Monthly Labor Re­view,
pages 149-160, February 1964.
8
Married women are still a relatively small proportion of the total labor force, of course.
Of the total 72.6 million force in March 1963, about 20 percent were married women. As re­cently
as 1950, however, only 13 percent were married women. Men make up two-thirds of the
U.S. labor force.
The increasing number of wives in the labor force goes hand in hand with rising educa­tion
levels among women. The labor force participation rate for well-educated women is in­creasing;
that for less educated women stays about the same.
Married wcnnen (husband present) in the labor force, by age (numbers in thousands)
March March Increase,
Age 1962 1963 1962 to 1963
Number Number Number Percent
All __________________________
13,485 14,061 576 4
14 to 19 ______________________ 253 262 9 4
2250 ttoo 2344 _-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_- 1,177 1,260 83 7 2,725 2,813 88 3
35 to 44_ _____________________ 4,053 4,152 99 2
45 to
54 ______________________
3,485 3,717 232 7
55 to 64---------------------- 1,532 1,636 104 7
65 and over __________________ 260 221 -39 -15
LAUNDERING COSTS: HOME VS. SELF-SERVICE
The cost of buying an automatic washing machine and dryer for the home laundry represents
a major expense for most families. One might question whether it would pay to go to this ex­pense
if there were a self-service laundry handy. This would depend largely on the amount of
laundry done. The more loads of washing and drying done in a week, the lower the cost per load
for home laundering. (See table.)
In the example used here, which is based on prices prevailing in the Washington, D.C. area,
the point at which washing and drying at home begins to pay is five loads per week. If fewer
than five loads are done, the cost is higher at home than at a self-service laundry. If five or
more loads are done, the cost is less at home. The cost per load for home laundering with auto­matic
washer and dryer is about 73 cents when three loads are done, 55 cents for five loads, and
45 cents for eight loads. Laundering at a self-service unit costs about 57 cents a load.
The estimated costs for washing and drying done at home were figured on the investment
in the appliances, operating expenses (electricity to operate the appliances, water used, fuel to
heat water) and supplies (detergent and disinfectant). An automatic washer and dryer with
a credit price of $291 and $219, respectively, and local prices for operating expenses and sup­plies
were used.
Cost per load of laundry done at hcnne and in a self-se?·vice laund1·y
At home based on number of loads-
Item of expense 3 4 5 6 8 10
At
self-service
laundry
Cents Cents Cents Cents Cents Cents Cents
Equipment (automatic washer and dryer)'---- 0.45
Operation ' ------------------------------- .16
Supplies'--------------------------------- .12
Total ----------------------------------- .73
' Includes depreciation and repairs.
0.34
.16
.12
.62
0.27
.16
.12
.55
0.22
.16
.12
.50
0.17
.16
.12
.45
0.14
.16
.12
.42
}o.45
.12
.57
'Includes cost of electricity to operate appliances, water, and gas to heat water based on rates in the Wash­ington,
D.C., area.
• A detergent and a disinfectant at prices in the Washington, D.C., area.
9
Investment in the washer and dryer amounted to $1.35 a week. To arrive at this estimate,
the cost of each appliance was divided by the average number of years a family can expect to
use the particular appliance-10 years for the washer and 14 for the dryer.1 This gives the cost
of depreciation for 1 year. Five percent of the purchase price was added for the cost of repairs
for 1 year. The total cost of depreciation and repairs for the two appliances was divided by 52
to get the cost per week.
The cost of doing laundry at a self-service laundry includes a charge of 25 cents for wash­ing,
20 cents for drying, and 12 cents for detergent and disinfectant. (These charges are for
equipment taking the same size load as home equipment.) Detergent and disinfectant costs are
the same whether the laundry is done at home or away from home. The cost of transporta­tion
to the laundry center was not included.
Even where there is no cost advantage in doing laundry at home with an automatic washer
and dryer as compared with using a self-service laundry, there may be other advantages. For
example, it would be more convenient to put the clothes in the machine at home than to
pack them up and carry them some distance away. At home the homemaker can go about
other business while the clothes are being washed and dried-a definite advantage for those
with small children.
-Lucile F. Mork
' Based on findings from the Consumer and Food Economics Research Division's studies of service-life ex­pectancy
of household equipment.
CENSUS PROJECTIONS OF POPULATION IN 1970 AND 1985
We can expect the U.S. population to be between 206 and 211 million in 1970 and between
248 and 276 million in 1985, according to the latest projections by the Census Bureau. Since
the population was estimated to be 189 million on July 1, 1963, the benchmark date, this means
an increase of at least 17 million in 7 years and an additional 42 million in the following 15
years.
These projections are somewhat smaller than the previous projection for these years.
Changes in death and birth rates have made it necessary to reexamine the trends.
The death rate declined from 17.2 per 1,000 population in 1900 to 9.5 in 1950. Starting
in 1938, the decline was rapid, because the "miracle drugs" were su~cessful. in reducing deaths
from infectious diseases. Since 1954, however, there has been a levelmg off m the death rate as
the proportion of deaths from these diseases has become stable.
The birth rate declined to a low of 18.5 per 1,000 population in the mid-1930's, then rose
to a high of 25.8 in 1947. Through 1951-59, the birth rate stayed between 24.0 and ~5.0. In
1960 it began to decline and was down to 22.4 in 1962. The decline will probably contmue for
2 or 3 years. When the large number of women now under 20 years of age move into the main
childbearing period, the birth rate may again increase.
For the new projections, only one trend in de~th rates is. used. Since the future course of
family size is uncertain, however, four assumptwns as to birth tr~nds have been mad.e. Thus,
there are four sets of population projections. The most conservative and the most hberal of
these are shown in the table. A single projection is given for e~ch age group 25 to 44 and 75
and over, because these groups will not be affected by future birth rates.
10
Projected Dist1-ibution of the Population, By Age; 1968 to 1985
1970 1985
Age 1963 Conservative Liberal Conservative Liberal
Millions Millions Millions Millions Millions
Total': 189.3 205.9 211.4 248.0 275.6
Under 5 years 20.7 19.4 24.0 24.2 33.0
5-13 . 34.6 36.8 37.8 40.4 52.7
14-17 13.5 15.7 15.7 15.9 20.0
18-24 18.2 24.4 24.4 28.2 30.7
25-44 47.0 48.2 71.1
45-64 37.9 41.9 43.0
65-74 11.3 12.1 15.6
75 and over 6.2 7.4 9.4
Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent
Total': 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Under 5 years 10:9 9.4 11.3 9.8 12.0
5-13 18.2 17.9 17.9 16.3 19.1
14-17 7.1 7.6 7.4 6.4 7.3
18-24 9.6 11.8 11.5 11.4 11.2
25-44 24.8 23.4 22.8 28.7 25.8
45-64 20.1 20.3 19.8 17.4 15.6
65-74 6.0 5.9 5.7 6.3 5.7
75 and over 3.3 3.6 3.5 3.8 3.4
'Items may not add to total due to rounding.
Age Groups in the Population
We can expect some changes in the age composition of the population by 1985. If the con­servative
projections turn out to be correct, the working-age population (18 to 64 years) will
increase from 54 percent of the total population in 1963 to 57 percent in 1985. It will be sup­porting
a slightly larger proportion of elderly persons (10 percent in 1985 as compared with 9
percent in 1963) and a considerably smaller proportion of children under 18 (32 percent as
compared with 36). If, however, the liberal estimates are correct, the working-age population
will be a smaller proportion of the total (down from 54 percent in 1963 to 52 percent in 1985),
children will be a larger proportion, and the elderly will maintain a stable position.
Of particular interest are the projected changes in the number of school-age children be­cause
of the strain that will be put on school plants and teaching staffs. In 1985, the number
of grade-school age ( 5 to 13) will be 17 to 52 percent larger than in 1963, under the conserva­tive
and liberal projections, respectively. The high school population (ages 14 to 17) will be 18
to 48 percent higher, even if the number of years completed before leaving school does not con­tinue
to increase as it has been doing in the past. The college-age population (18 to 24 years)
will incr~ase 56 to 69 percent.
Under the conservative projections, the rate of increase for the total population is greater
than for the elementary and high school populations. If the liberal projections hold, however,
total population will increase relatively less than any of the three school-age groups. Thus,
problems of financing expanded school facilities would likely be much greater in the latter situ­ation.
Sources:
U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports, Series P-25, No. 286
(July 1964).
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service: "Trends in Marriages. Births,
and Population," reprint from Health, Education, and Welfare Indicators for March 1963; also, The Change in
Mortality Trend in the United States, National Center for Health Statistics, Series 3, No. 1 (March 1964).
-Carol Jaeger
USDA CONTROL OVER PESTICIDES IMPROVED
In his Message to the Congress on Consumer Interests last February. President Johnson
urged passage of a bill that would protect consumers by keeping pesticides off the market
until they had been certified as safe. Such a bill was passed in May 1964.
11
Th~ new law is an amendment to the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act.
Bef~re It was p~ssed, !1 manufact~rer of pesticide? could demand that the U.S. Department of
Ag~ICult~re register his product . under protest" If the Department had denied an unqualified
registratiO~. Then he could sell It to the public. Under the May 1964 amendment, this is no
longer po~sible .. The manufacturer mu?t prove that the pesticide is safe and effective before he
can have It registered and can market It. The Act also authorizes the USDA to require the man­ufacturer
to put the registration number on the label.
. Adde~ prote~tion is.provided ?Y a recen~ ~evision ~f the procedures for registering pesti­cides.
T~us reqmres stricter labelmg of pesticide contamers. The labels must display warning
and cautiOn statements where they are easy to see and easy to read. They must also caution the
user to handle the pesticide carefully.
FAMILY FOOD PLANS, REVISED 1964
The food plans of the Department of Agriculture have served for more than 30 years as a
guide for estimating food needs and food costs of families and population groups. They have
been used as a basis for establishing money allotments for food by welfare agencies, as an edu­cational
tool in teaching nutrition and food management, and as a guide for estimating poten­tial
demand for agricultural products.
The food plans need to be revised from time to time to keep pace with new knowledge of
human nutritional needs and nutrient content of foods, and with changes in food consumption
patterns and cost relationships among foods. This article presents a 1964 revision of the food
plans in use since 1959 1 •
The newly revised plans were developed using the National Research Council's Recommend­ed
Dietary Allowances (1963) as the principal criterion of nutritional adequacy 2
; the nu­tritive
values published in the 1963 revision of Agriculture Handbook No. 8, Composition of
Foods ... raw, processed, prepared; and the USDA's most recent estimates of food consump­tion
patterns.
The USDA plans are guides for estimating the quantities of foods to buy in a week for
boys and girls and men and women of different ages and for pregnant and lactating women.
From these quantities food budgets for families and other groups of varying size and composi­tion
can be developed.
Five sets of food plans, as revised, are shown in tables 1 to 5. They include the low-cost,
moderate-cost, and liberal plans for which cost estimates are p~blishe~ quarterly in Fq,mily
Economics Review. They also include a set of low-cost plans especially smtable to food habits of
the Southeastern States, and a set of economy plans for emergency use when funds are very
limited.
Food Plans Descdbed
The basic low-cost food plan (table 1) provides for a diet consistent with. food patterns
acceptable to most groups in this country. It is the plan l'll:ost ofte~ used by social welfare and
public health agencies for calculating allotments and plannmg family food b~?gets. Compared
with the moderate-cost and liberal plans, the low-cost plan has larger quantities of foods that
provide high nutritional returns in relation to cost-potatoes, dry b~ans and peas, and flour and
cereal-and smaller quantities of meat, poultry, and fis~, and of f~mts and vegetables other than
potatoes. Furthermore, it is assumed that users of this plan will select the lower-cost foods
within groups.
'Family Food Plans and Costs. E. Cofer, E. Grossman, F. Clark. . US_DA, .HERR N.o. 20, 1_962. Descrip­tions
of the plans general procedures used in their development, and gu~des m usmg th~m I~ figu_rmg ~ood quan­tities
for families' presented in this publication are applicable to the revised plans contamed m this article.
'Recommended Dietary Allowances, Sixth Revised Edition, 1964. National Academy of Sciences. National
Research Council, Pub. 1146.
12
The moderate-cost plan (table 2) is most likely to be used by the average U.S. family. This
plan is used by many institutions as a guide to planning nutritionally adequate and satisfying
meals. It includes larger quantities of milk, meat, fruits, and vegetables than the low-cost
plans. It allows for some of the higher priced cuts of meat, a few out-of-season foods, and some
convenience foods.
The liberal plan (table 3) is for families who want and can afford greater variety, more
meats and fruits and vegetables, than the other plans allow. The higher cost of the liberal as
compared with the moderate-cost plan is partly because it includes different quantities of food
groups, but mainly because of more expensive choices with these groups.
Another low-cost food plan (table 4) includes quantities of grain products suitable for
families who are high consumers of cereal products. This plan may be useful particularly for
families in the Southe11stern States.
The economy plan (table 5) is the least expensive of all the plans. It is designed for tem­porary
or emergency use when funds are low. The food for the economy plan can be purchased
for 20 to 25 percent less than food for the basic low-cost plan. Plans for adequate diets at still
lower cost could be developed. While they would deviate further from average food habits, they
might be acceptable to some groups of people.
Sex-age Groups Changed
The National Research Council gives dietary allowances for boys and girls in slightly dif­ferent
age groups in its 1963 revision than in earlier ones. The USDA adopted these new age
groupings for its 1964 food plans, with this exception: It developed plans for 15-to-20-year-old
boys and for girls in the same age bracket, instead of the NRC's 15-to-18-year groups. Dietary
allowances for the 15-to-18-year-old groups were used.
The Food Groups
As in the previous plans food items are grouped into 11 categories. Except for potatoes
and eggs, each group offers a selection of foods that are similar in food value and that have simi­lar
uses in a meal. A family can make its own choices within the group and thus adapt the plan
to its needs and preferences.
The 11 food groups and the common foods in each are listed below. The makeup of the
food groups in the 1964 plans is the same as for previous plans.
Milk, cheese, ice cream: Milk-whole, skim, buttermilk, dry, evaporated, condensed; cheese;
cream ; ice cream.
Meat, poultry, fish: Beef, veal, lamb, pork (includes bacon and salt pork); variety meats such
as liver, heart, and tongue; luncheon meats; poultry; fish and shellfish; mixtures mostly meat.
Eggs.
Dry beans and peas, nuts: Dry beans of all kinds; dry peas; lentils; soybeans and soya
products; peanuts, peanut butter, and tree nuts ; soups mostly legumes.
Flour, cereals, baked goods: Flour and meal, cereals, rice, hominy, noodles, macroni, spa­ghetti,
bread, cake, other baked goods, mixtures mostly grain.
Citrus fruits, tomatoes: Grapefruit, lemons, limes, oranges, tangerines, tomatoes.
Dark-green and deep-yellow vegetables: Broccoli, chard, collards, kale, spinach, other dark
greens; carrots, pumpkin, sweetpotatoes, yellow winter squash.
Potatoes: White potatoes.
13
Other vegetables and fruits: All vegetable~ and fruits not included in other groups, such as
asparagus, beets, brussel sp~outs, cabb~ge, cauhflower, celery, corn, cucumbers, green lima beans,
snap?eans, lettu~.::e, okra, omons, parsmps, peas, peppers, rutabagas, sauerkraut, summer squash,
turmps. Apples,. avocados, bananas, berrie.s. of all kinds, cherries, dates, figs, grapes, melons,
peaches, pears, pmeapple, plums, prunes, raisms, rhubarb.
Fats and oils: Butter, margarine, mayonnaise, salad dressing, salad and cooking oils,
shortening.
Sugars, sweets: Sugar, granulated, powdered, brown, maple; molasses· sirup· honey· jams·
jellies; preserves; powdered and prepared desserts. ' ' ' '
Nutritive Value of Plans
In the development of the plans, it was assumed that families following the plans make
average selections of food within each food group, similar to those reported in household food
surveys and per capita food consumption estimates. The nutritive value of a pound of this
"average selection" was calculated for each food group. These food group nutritive values were
used with suggested food group quantities in calculating nutritive values of the plans for indi­viduals.
The NRC dietary allowances are for nutrients in food as eaten; the food plans give quan­tities
of food that enter the kitchen. Nutritive values have been adjusted to account for losses
in cooking and for inedible discards. To allow for discards of edible food in the household,
margins above the NRC calorie allowances were arbitrarily set at 5 to 10 percent for the low­cost,
15 percent for the moderate-cost, and 20 percent for the liberal plan.
The revised food plans generally provide liberal amounts of protein, vitamin A value, B­vitamins,
and ascorbic acid. However, they barely meet allowances for calcuim and iron for
some individuals-especially the pregnant woman. Her calcium and iron needs are high in re­lation
to her calorie allowance. The inclusion of liver or other organ meats among choices would
help to meet iron needs.
Small children, pregnant and nursing women, elderly persons, and persons who have no ex­posure
to clear sunshine need some source of vitamin D. This need can usually be met by the
use of vitamin D milk.
Changes in Plans
Only minor adjustments in quantities of foods suggested in the 1959 revision of the food
plans were necessary to bring nutritive values of the plans in line with the NRC's revised rec­ommended
dietary allowances. Here is a summary of the changes and reasons for them:
1. Because of the lowered allowances for calcium and riboflavin, milk is suggested in
smaller amounts for children up to age 12 and for pregnant and lactating women.
2. To help meet increased allowances for iron for children up to age 1~, f?r. wome1_1 20 to
55 years of age, and for pregnant and lactating women, plans for thes~ mdividuals I!lclude
larger amounts of meat, poultry, and fish. Amounts of other food groups Importa!lt for Iron­dark-
green and deep-yellow vegetables; eggs; and dry beans, peas, and nuts-are mcreased for
women 20 to 55 years of age and for pregnant an.d l~<:tating women. Flou_r •. cere~l, and baked
goods are suggested in larger amounts for some mdividuals to supply additional Iron.
3. Because of lowered allowances for calories and B-vitamins for men, plans for men in­clude
less meat, poultry, and fish.
4. Because of lowered ascorbic acid allowances for boys 9 ~ears old and over, for men, a!ld
for lactating women, citrus fruits and tomatoes are suggested m smaller amounts for these In-dividuals.
14
The revised food plans result in a market basket for the average family containing a little
less milk and citrus fruit and tomatoes but a little more meat, poultry, and fish; eggs; dry beans;
flour, cereals, and baked goods; and green and yellow vegetables.
The table below shows how the quantities of food in the 1964 low- and moderate-cost
plans differ from those in previous plans. It gives quantities of 11 food groups suggested for
a typical family group.
Weekly quantities' of foods in low-cost and moderate-cost food plans for a typical family of four;' previous and
revised plans
Low cost
Previous
Food groups plan
Milk, milk producte ____________________________ quarts _ _
Meat, poultry, fish ______________________________ pounds __
Eggs ___ ---------------_______________________ number _
19.00
10.50
23.00
Dry beans, peas, nuts __________________________ pounds __
Flour, cereals, baked goods _____________________ pounds __
Citrus fruits, tomatoes _________________________ pounds __
Dark-green, deep-yellow vegetables ______________ pounds __
Potatoes --------------------------------------Pounds __
Other vegetables, fruits _________________________ pounds __
Fats, oils _____________________________________ pounds __
Sugars, sweets _________________________________ pounds __
1.25
12.00
8.50
2.50
9.75
19.75
2.12
3.00
' Quantities as added up from tables 1 and 2. 0.06 pound = 1 ounce.
• Man and woman 33 years of age, girl 8, boy 11.
Cost of Foods in Plans Compared
1964
revised
~
16.50
11.50
25.00
1.38
12.50
7.50
3.50
10.00
19.75
2.12
3.00
Moderate cost
1964
Previous revised
plan ~
19.50 17.50
16.75 17.25
27.0 29.00
.75 .88
11.00 11.50
10.00 9.00
2.75 3.50
8.50 8.50
22.50 22.50
2.75 2.75
3.88 3.88
The average weekly cost per person (based on sex-age distribution of the U.S. population)
of foods in the revised plans is almost the same as in the earlier plans. Estimated average costs
for June 1964 are-
Low-cost plan ----------------------------­Moderate-
cost plan ------------------------­Liberal
plan-------------------------------
Previous plans
$5.90
7.90
9.00
Revised plans
$6.00
7.90
9.10
The costs of foods in the previous and revised plans for individuals are given in tables 6
and 7. ·
In general, foods in the revised plans for children up to 12 years of age cost about the
same as those for children in similar age groups in earlier plans. Increases in costs for meat
and cereals tend to balance decreases in costs for milk. Slightly lower costs for girls 9 to 12
years of age reflect a reduction of 300 calories in 1963 food energy allowances.
Food in revised plans for women, 20 to 55 years of age, is 5 to 11 percent more costly than
in earlier plans. This is because of the increase in amounts of higher cost iron-rich foods, such
as meat and eggs. Food for pregnant women is more costly for the same reason, but food for
the lactating woman costs about the same as before. Lower milk costs offset higher costs for
iron-rich foods. Foods for women over 75 years of age cost less in the revised plans.
Foods for men of all ages cost slightly less because of smaller amounts of meat, poultry,
and fish, and citrus fruits and tomatoes.
-Betty Peterkin
15
Table 1.-Low-Cost Family Food Plan-Revised 1964
Weekly quantities of food' for each member of family
uark-green
and Other
Milk, Dry Flour, Citrus deep- vege-cheese,
Meat, beans, cereals, fruit, yellow tables
ice poultry, peas, baked tom a- vege- Pota- and Fats, Sugars,
Sex-age group 1 cream' fish' Eggs nuts goods' toes . tables toes · fruits oils sweets
Qt. Lb. Oz. No. Lb. Oz. Lb. Oz. Lb. Oz. Lb. Oz. Lb. Oz. Lb. Oz. Lb. Oz. Lb. Oz.
Children:
7 months to 1 year 4 1 4 5 0 0 1 0 1 8 0 4 0 8 1 0 0 1 0 2
1 to 3 years _____ 4 1 12 5 0 1 1 8 1 8 0 4 0 12 2 4 0 4 0 4
3 to 6 years _____ 4 2 0 5 0 2 2 0 1 12 0 4 1 4 3 4 0 6 0 6
6 to 9 years _____ 4 2 4 6 0 4 2 12 2 0 0 8 2 4 4 4 0 8 0 10
Girls:
9 to 12 years ____ 5% 2 8 7 0 6 2 8 2 4 0 12 2 4 5 0 0 8 0 10
12 to 15 years _____ 7 2 8 7 0 6 2 12 2 4 1 0 2 8 5 0 0 8 0 12
15 to 20 years ___ 7 2 12 7 0 6 2 8 2 4 1 4 2 4 4 12 0 6 0 10
Boys:
9 to 12 years ____ 5% 2 8 6 0 6 3 0 2 0 0 12 2 8 5 0 0 8 0 12
12 to 15 years ___ 7 2 8 6 0 6 4 4 2 0 0 12 3 4 5 4 0 12 0 12
15 to 20 yearl'l _____ 7 3 8 6 0 6 4 12 2 0 0 12 4 4 5 8 0 14 0 14
Women:
20 to 35 years ___ 3% 3 4 7 0 6 2 8 1 12 1 8 2 0 5 0 0 6 0 10
35 to 55 years ___ 3% 3 4 7 0 6 2 4 1 12 1 8 1 8 4 8 0 4 0 10
55 to 75 years ___ 3% 2 8 5 0 4 2 0 2 0 1 0 1 4 3 12 0 4 0 6
75 years and over 3% 2 4 5 0 4 1 8 2 0 1 0 1 4 3 0 0 4 0 4
Pregnant• ______ 51h 3 12 7 0 6 2 12 3 4 2 0 1 8 5 8 0 6 0 6
Lactating • ------ 8 3 12 7 0 6 3 12 3 4 1 8 3 4 5 8 0 10 0 10
Men:
20 to 35 years ___ 3% 3 8 6 0 6 4 4 1 12 0 12 3 4 5 8 1 12 1 0
35 to 55 years ___ 3% 3 4 6 0 6 3 12 1 12 0 12 3 0 5 0 0 10 0 12
55 to 75 years ___ 3% 3 0 6 0 4 2 12 1 12 0 12 2 4 4 8 0 10 0 10
75 years and over 3% 2 12 6 0 4 2 8 1 8 0 12 2 0 4 4 0 8 0 8
1 Age groups include the persons of the first age listed up to but not including those of the second age listed.
• Food as purchased or brought into the kitchen from garden or farm.
3 Fluid whole milk, or its calcium equivalent in cheese, evaporated milk, dry milk, or ice cream.
' Bacon and salt pork should not exceed % pound for each 5 pounds of meat group.
• Weight in terms of flour and cereal. Count 1% pounds bread as 1 pound flour.
• Three additional quarts of milk are suggested for pregnant and lactating teenagers.
16
Table 2.-M oderate-Cost Family Food Plan-Revised 1964
Weekly quantities of food' for each member of family
Dark-i green
and Other
Milk, Dry Flour, Citrus deep- 1 vege-cheese,
Meat, beans, cereals, fruit, yellow · tables
ice poultry, peas, baked toma- . vege- ~ Pota- and Fats, Sugars,
Sex-age group 1 cream' fish • Eggs nuts goods" toes 1 tables toes fruits oils sweets
'
Qt. Lb. Oz. No. Lb. Oz. Lb. Oz. Lb. Oz. Lb. Oz. Lb. Oz. Lb. Oz. Lb. Oz. Lb. Oz.
Children:
7 months to 1 year 5 1 8 6 0 0 0 14 1 8 0 4 0 8 1 8 0 1 0 2
1 to 3 years _____ 5 2 4 6 0 1 1 4 1 8 0 4 0 12 2 12 0 4 0 4
3 to 6 years _____ 5 2 12 6 0 1 1 12 2 0 0 4 1 0 4 0 0 6 0 8
6 to 9 years _____ 5 3 4 7 0 2 2 8 2 4 0 8 1 12 4 12 0 10 0 14
Girls:
9 to 12 years ____ . 5% 4 4 7 0 4 2 8 2 8 0 12 2 0 5 8 0 8 0 12
12 to 15 years ___ 7 4 8 7 0 4 2 8 2 8 1 0 2 4 5 12 0 12 0 14
15 to 20 years ___ 7 4 8 7 0 4 2 4 2 8 1 4 2 0 5 8 0 8 0 12
Boys:
9 to 12 years ____ 51h 4 4 7 0 4 2 12 2 4 0 12 2 4 5 8 0 10 0 14
12 to 15 years ____ 7 4 12 7 0 4 4 0 2 4 0 12 3 0 6 0 0 14 1 0
15 to 20 years ___ 7 5 4 7 0 6 4 8 2 8 0 12 4 0 6 8 1 2 1 2
Women:
20 to 35 years ___ 31h 4 12 8 0 4 2 4 2 4 1 8 1 8 5 12 0 8 0 14
35 to 55 years ___ 31h 4 12 8 0 4 2 4 2 4 1 8 1 4 5 0 0 6 0 8
55 to 75 years ___ 3% 4 4 6 0 2 1 8 2 4 0 12 1 4 4 4 0 6 0 8
75 years and over 31h 3 8 6 0 2 1 4 2 4 0 12 1 0 3 12 0 4 0 8
Pregnant• ------ 51h 5 8 8 0 4 2 12 3 4 2 0 1 8 5 12 0 6 0 8
Lactating • ______ 8 5 8 8 0 4 3 12 3 8 1 8 2 12 6 4 0 12 0 12
Men:
20 to 35 years ___ 31h 5 0 7 0 4 4 0 2 4 0 12 3 0 6 8 1 0 1 4
35 to 55 years ___ 31h 4 12 7 0 4 3 8 2 4 0 12 2 8 5 12 0 14 1 0
55 to 75 years ____ 31h 4 8 7 0 2 2 8 2 4 0 12 2 4 5 8 0 12 0 14
75 years and over 3% 4 8 7 0 2 2 4 2 4 0 12 2 0 5 4 0 8 0 12
1 Age groups include the persons of the first age listed up to but not including those of the second age listed.
' Food as purchased or brought into · the kitchen from garden or farm.
' Fluid whole milk, or its calcium equivalent in cheese, evaporated milk, dry milk, or ice cream.
• Bacon and salt pork should not exceed If.! pound for each 5 pounds of meat group.
• Weight in terms of flour and cereal. Count 11h poul'\dS bread as 1 pound flour.
• Three additional quarts of milk are suggested for pregnant and lactating teenagers.
,
17
Table 3.-Libern.l Family Food Plan-Revised 1964
,. Week!1 :v_yuan t'1t ies...of..f0 0d • i or each memb er of family
Dark-green
Milk,
and Other
Dry Flour, Citrus deep- vege- cheese, · Meat, beans, cereals, fruit, yellow tables ice poultry, peas, baked toma- ve~e- Pota- and
Se~-age group ' rream' fish' Eggs nuts goods ' toes tabes toes fruits
Qt. Lb. Oz. No. Lb. Oz. Lb. Oz. Lb. Oz. Lb. Oz. Lb. Oz. Lb. Oz.
Children:
7 months to 1 year 5 1 8 7 0 0 0 14 1 12 0 4 0 8 1 8 1 to 3 years _____ 5 2 12 7 0 1 1 4 1 12 0 4 0 12 2 12 3 to 6 years _____ 5 3 4 7 0 1 1 8 2 4 0 8 0 12 4 8 6 to 9 years _____ 5% 4 4 7 0 2 2 4 2 12 0 8 1 8 5 4
Girls:
9 to 12 years ____ 5% 4 12 7 0 4 2 4 3 0 0 12 1 12 6 0
12 to 15 years ___ 7 5 12 7 0 2 2 4 3 0 1 0 2 0 6 0 15 to 20 years ___ 7 5 8 7 0 2 2 0 3 0 1 4 1 12 5 12
Boys:
9 to 12 years ____ 5% 5 0 7 0 4 2 12 2 12 0 12 2 4 6 0
12 to 15 years ___ 7 5 8 7 0 4 3 12 3 0 0 12 3 0 6 8
15 to 20 years ___ 7 6 4 7 0 6 4 4 3 4 0 12 4 4 7 4
Women:
20 to 35 years ___ 4 5 8 8 0 4 2 0 3 0 1 8 1 4 6 4
35 to 55 years ___ 4 5 8 8 0 4 1 12 3 0 1 8 1 0 6 0
55 to 75 years ___ 4 4 12 6 0 1 1 4 3 0 0 12 1 0 4 8
75 years and over 4 4 4 6 0 1 1 0 3 0 0 12 0 12 4 0
Pregnant• ______ 51h 6 4 8 0 4 2 8 4 0 2 0 1 4 6 4
Lactating • ------ 8 6 0 8 0 4 3 12 4 0 1 8 2 8 6 4
Men:
20 to 35 years ___ 4 6 0 7 0 4 3 12 3 0 0 12 2 12 7 12
35 to 55 years ___ 4 5 8 7 0 4 3 4 3 0 0 12 2 4 6 8
55 to 75 years ___ 4 5 0 7 0 2 2 8 3 0 0 12 2 0 6 0
75 years and over 4 5 0 7 0 2 2 4 2 12 0 12 1 12 5 12
Fats,
oils
Lb. Oz.
0 1
0 4
0 8
0 10
0 10
0 12
0 10
0 10
0 14
1 4
0 8
0 6
0 6
0 4
0 6
0 14
1 0
0 14
0 10
0 8
Sug ars,
sw eets
Lb.
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
Oz.
2
4
10
0
14
2
14
0
4
2
2
12
12
10
12
4
8
4
2
14
' Age groups include the persons of the first age listed up to but not including those of the second age li
' Food as purchased or brought into the kitchen from garden or farm.
sted.
3 Fluid whole milk, or its calcium equivalent in cheese, evaporated milk, dry milk, or ice cream.
• Bacon and salt pork should not exceed % pound for each 5 pounds of meat group.
• Weight in terms of flour and cereal. Count 1 'h pounds bread as 1 pound flour.
• Three additional quarts of milk are suggested for pregnant and lactating teenagers.
Sex-age group'
Children:
7 months t.o 1 year
1 to 3 years _____
3 to 6 years _____
6 to 9 years _____
Girls:
9 to 12 years ____
12 to 15 years ___
15 to 20 years ___
Boys:
9 to 12 years ____
12 to 15 years ___
15 to 20 years ___
Women:
20 to 35 years ___
35 to 55 years ___
55 to 75 years ___
75 years and over
Pregnant• ______
Lactating • ______
Men:
20 to 35 years ___
35 to 55 years ___
55 to 75 years ___
75 years and over
18
Table 4.-Another Low-Cost Family Food Plan-Revised 1964
(Especially adapted for Southeastern food habits)
Weekly quantities of food' for each member of family
!Jark-
·green
and Other
Milk, Dry Flour, Citrus deep- vege-cheese,
Meat, beans, cereals, fruit, yellow tables
ice poultry, peas, baked toma- vege- Pota- and
ream• fish • Eggs nuts ,goods" toes tables toes fruits
Qt. Lb. Oz. No. Lb. Oz. Lb. Oz. Lb. Oz. Lb. Oz. Lb. Oz. Lb. Oz.
4 1 0 5 0 0 1 4 1 8 0 4 0 8 1 0
4 1 8 5 0 1 1 12 1 8 0 4 0 8 2 0
4 1 12 5 0 2 2 4 1 12 0 4 0 12 3 0
4 2 0 6 0 6 3 0 2 0 0 8 1 8 4 0
5 2 0 6 0 8 3 0 2 4 0 12 1 12 4 12
6'-h 2 0 7 0 6 3 4 2 4 1 0 2 0 4 12
6% 2 4 7 0 6 3 0 2 4 1 4 1 12 4 8
5 2 0 6 0 6 3 8 2 0 0 12 2 0 4 12
6'-h 2 4 6 0 8 4 12 2 0 0 12 2 12 5 0
6'-h 2 12 6 0 8 5 8 2 0 0 12 4 0 5 4
3 2 12 7 0 8 3 0 1 12 1 8 1 8 4 12
3 2 12 7 0 8 2 12 1 12 1 8 1 0 4 4
3 2 0 5 0 4 2 4 1 12 1 0 1 0 3 8
3 1 12 5 0 4 2 0 1 12 1 0 1 0 3 0
51h 3 4 7 0 8 3 4 3 4 2 0 1 0 5 4
7 3 8 7 0 6 4 12 3 4 1 8 2 4 5 4
3 3 0 6 0 8 4 12 1 12 0 12 2 12 5 4
3 2 12 6 0 8 4 4 1 12 0 12 2 8 4 12
3 2 8 6 0 6 3 4 1 12 0 12 2 0 4 4
3 2 4 6 0 6 3 0 1 12 0 12 1 12 4 0
Fats, Sugars,
oils sweets
Lb. Oz. Lb. Oz.
0 1 0 2
0 5 0 4
0 8 0 6
0 10 0 10
0 10 0 8
0 12 0 12
0 8 0 10
0 10 0 12
0 14 0 12
1 0 0 14
0 8 0 10
0 6 0 8
0 6 0 6
0 4 0 6
0 6 0 6
0 12 0 10
0 14 1 0
0 12 0 12
0 12 0 10
0 10 0 8
' Age groups include the persons of the first age listed up to but not including those of the second age listed.
• Food as purchased or brought into the kitchen from garden or farm.
• Fluid whole milk, or its calcium equivalent in cheese, evaporated milk, dry milk, or ice cream.
' Bacon and salt pork should not exceed % pound for each 5 pounds of meat group.
• Weight in terms of flour and cereal. Count 1% pounds bread as 1 pound flour.
• Three additional quarts of milk are suggested for pregnant and lactating teenagers.
Milk,
cheese,
ice
Sex-age group 1 cream'
Qt.
Children:
7 months to 1 year 4
1 to 3 years ______ 4
3 to 6 years ______ 3%
6 to 9 years _____ 3%
Girls:
9 to 12 years ____ 5
12 to 15 years ___ 6
15 to 20 years ___ 6
Boys:
9 to 12 years ____ 5
12 to 15 years ___ 6
15 to 20 years ___ 6
Women:
20 to 35 years ___ 3
35 to 55 years ___ 3
55 to 75 years ___ 3
75 years and over 3
Pregnant• ______ 5%
Lactating • ------ 8
Men:
20 to 35 years ___ 3
35 to 55 years ___ 3
55 to 75 years ___ 3
75 years and over 3
19
Table 5.-Economy Family Food Plan-Revised 1964
(Designed for temporary use when funds are limited)
Weekly qu~ntities _of food ' for each member of family
Dark-green
and Other
Dry Flour, Citrus deep- vege-
Meat, beans, cereals, fruit, yellow tables
poultry, peas, baked tom a- vege- Pota- and
fish' Eggs nuts goods• toes tables toes fruits
Lb. Oz. No. Lb. Oz. Lb. Oz. Lb. Oz. Lb. Oz. Lb. Oz. Lb. Oz.
1 0 4 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 4 0 12 1 0
1 4 4 0 1 1 12 1 0 0 4 1 0 2 0
1 8 4 0 4 2 4 1 4 0 4 1 8 2 8
1 12 5 0 6 3 0 1 8 0 8 2 8 3 0
1 12 5 0 10 2 12 1 12 0 12 2 8 3 4
2 0 6 0 10 3 0 1 12 1 0 3 0 3 8
2 0 6 0 8 2 12 1 12 1 4 2 8 3 4
2 0 5 0 8 3 4 1 8 0 12 2 12 3 4
2 0 5 0 10 4 4 1 12 0 12 3 8 3 8
2 8 5 0 10 5 0 1 12 0 12 4 12 3 8
1 12 6 0 10 2 12 1 8 1 8 2 12 3 0
1 12 6 0 10 2 8 1 8 1 8 2 8 2 12
1 8 4 0 6 2 0 1 12 1 0 2 8 2 12
1 4 4 0 6 1 12 1 12 1 0 2 0 2 4
2 0 7 0 10 3 0 3 0 2 0 2 8 4 8
2 0 6 0 10 4 0 3 0 1 8 3 12 4 8
2 0 5 0 8 4 8 1 8 0 12 4 4 3 8
1 12 5 0 8 4 4 1 8 0 12 3 8 3 4
1 8 5 0 6 3 4 1 8 0 12 2 12 3 0
1 8 5 0 6 3 0 1 8 0 12 2 8 2 12
Fats, Sugars,
oils sweets
Lb. Oz. Lb. Oz.
0 2 0 2
0 4 0 4
0 6 0 6
0 10 0 10
0 8 0 10
0 10 0 10
0 8 0 10
0 10 0 10
0 14 0 12
1 0 0 14
0 8 0 12
0 6 0 8
0 6 0 6
0 4 0 6
0 6 0 6
0 12 0 12
0 14 1 2
0 12 0 14
0 12 0 10
0 10 0 6
1 Age groups include the persons of the first age listed up to but not including those of the second age listed.
' Food as purchased or brought into the kitchen from garden or farm.
3 Fluid whole milk, or its calcium equivalent in cheese, evaporated milk, dry milk, or ice cream.
• Bacon and salt pork should not exceed ¥.! pound for each 5 pounds of meat group.
• Weight in terms of flour and cereal. Count 1% pounds bread as 1 pound flour.
• Three additional quarts of milk are suggested for pregnant and lactating teenagers.
20
Table 6-Cost of 1 Week's Food at Home 1 Estimated for Food Plans
at Three Cost Levels, June 1964, U.S.A. Average
(Food plans in use prior to Octoher 1964)
Sex-age groups
FAMILIES
Family of two, 20-34 years'----------------------------­Family
of two, 55-74 years 2
----------------------------­Family
of four, preschool children'----------------------­Family
of four, school children'--------------------------
INDIVIDUALS'
Children, under 1 year _________________________________ _
1-3 years --------------------------------------------
4-6 years --------------------------------------------
7-9 years --------------------------------------------
Gi1rl0s-, 1123 y-1e5a rsy e-a-r-s -_-_-_-_-_-_-__-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_- -_
16-19 years -----------------------------------------­Boys,
13-15 years---------------------------------------
VV1o6m-e1n9, y20ea-3rs4 -y-e-a-r-s-_ -_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-__-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_- -_
35-54 years ------------------------------------------
5755 -7y4e ayrse aarns d- -o-v-e-r-_ -_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-__-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_- -_
Pregnant -------------------------------------------­Nur~
ng ---------------------------------------------
Men, 20-34 years----------------------------------------
35-54 years ------------------------------------------
5755 -7y4e ayrse aarns d- -o-v-e-r-_ -_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-__-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_- -_
Low-cost
plan
Dollars
14.20
12.80
21.20
24.50
3.10
3.80
4.50
5.30
6.30
6.60
6.70
7.20
8.50
5.60
5.50
5.10
5.00
7.00
8.80
7.30
6.90
6.50
6.30
Moderate-cost
plan
Dollars
19.40
17.40
28.10
32.80
3.90
4.70
5.80
6.90
8.30
8.80
8.90
9.80
11.50
7.70
7.50
7.00
6.60
9.10
11.20
9.90
9.20
8.80
8.40
Liberal
plan
Dollars
21.90
19.40
32.10
37.30
4.20
5.40
6.80
7.90
9.50
10.10
10.00
11.10
13.00
8.70
8.50
7.90
7.40
10.00
12.40
11.20
10.30
9.70
9.30
1 These estimates were computed from quantities in food plans published in Home Economics Research
Report No. 20, Family Food Plans and Food Costs. The costs of the food plans were first estimated by using
the average price per pound of each food group paid by nonfarm survey families at three selected income levels
in 1955. These prices were adjusted to current levels by use of Retail Food Prices by Cities released periodically
by the Bureau of Labor Statistics.
• Ten percent added for family size adjustment. For derivation of factors for adjustment, see HERR No.
20, Appendix B.
• Man and woman 20-34 years; children, 1-3 and 4-6 years.
• Man and woman 20-34 years; children, 7-9 and 10-12 years.
• The costs given are for individuals in 4-person families. For individuals in other size families, the
following adjustments are suggested: 1-Person-add 20 percent; 2-person-add 10 percent; 3-person-add 5
percent; 5-person-subtract 5 percent; 6-or-more-person-subtract 10 percent.
21
Table 7-Cost of 1 Week's Food at Home' Estimated for Food Plans
at Three Cost Levels, June 1964, U.S.A. Average
(Food plans revised, October 1964)
Sex-age groups •
FAMILIES
Family of two, 20-35 years'-----------------------------­Family
of two, 55-75 years'-----------------------------­Family
of four, preschool children'----------------------­Family
of four, school children'--------------------------
INDIVIDUALS"
Low-cost
plan
Dollars
14.60
12.20
21.40
24.60
Moderate-cost
plan
Do"tlars
19.60
16.50
28.40
33.00
Liberal
plan
Dollars
22.70
18.70
32.80
38.30
Children, under 1 year___________________________________ 2.90 3.80 4.10
1-3 years -------------------------------------------- 3.70 4.80 5.50
3-6 years -------------------------------------------- 4.40 5.80 6.70
6-9 years -------------------------------------------- 5.20 7.00 8.30
Girls, 9-12 years---------------------------------------- 6.00 8.00 8.90
12-15 years ------------------------------------------ 6.60 8.80 10.20
15-20 years ------------------------------------------ 6.90 9.00 10.20
Boys, 9-12 years________________________________________ 6.10 8.20 9.40
12-15 years ------------------------------------------ 7.10 9.70 11.00
15-20 years ------------------------------------------ 8.30 10.90 12.60
Women, 20-35 years_____________________________________ 6.20 8.30 9.40
35-55 years ------------------------------------------ 6'.00 7.90 9.10
55-75 years ------------------------------------------ 5.10 6.90 7.80
75 years and over_____________________________________ 4.70 6.20 7.20
Pregnant -------------------------------------------- 7.50 9.60 10.80
Nursing --------------------------------------------- 8.60 11.10 12.30
Men, 20-35 years________________________________________ 7.00 9.50 11.20
35-55 years ------------------------------------------ 6.60 8.80 10.20
55-75 years ------------------------------------------ 6.00 8.10 9.20
75 years and over_____________________________________ 5.60 7.80 8.90
1 These estimates were computed from quantities in food. plans iii. tables 1 to 3. The costs of the food plans
were first estimated by using the average price per pound of each food group paid by nonfarm survey families
at three selected income levels in 1955. These prices were adjusted to current levels by use of Retail Food Prices
by Cities released periodically by the Bureau of Labor Statistics.
• Age groups include the persons of the first age listed up to but not including those of the second age
listed.
3 Ten percent added for family size adjustment. For derivation of factors for adjustment, see HER~ No.
20, Appendix B.
• Man and woman 20-35 years; children, 1-3 and 3-6 years.
• Man and woman 20-35 years; child, 6-9 and boy 9-12 years.
6 The costs given are for individuals in 4-person families. For individuals in other size families, the fol­lowing
adjustments are suggested: 1-person-add 20 percent; 2-person-add 10 percent; 3-person-add 5 per­cent;
5-person-subtract 5 percent; 6-or-more-person-subtract 10 percent.
22
CONSUMER PRICES
Table !.-Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers
(including single workers)1 (New Series)
(1957-59=100)
May 1964
Group 1964 June
All items ---------------------------------- 107.1 107.8 108.0 108.3
FoFoodo d- -a-t- -h-o-m--e -_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-__-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_- 106.0 105.5 106.2* 107.2 104.5 103.7 104.4 105.7*
Food avvay from home __________________ 113.3 115.0 115.1 115.2
Housing --------------------------------- 106.0 106.9 107.1 * 107.1
Shelter • ------------------------------- 107.0 108.2* 108.4 108.6
Rent -------------------------------- 106.8 107.7 107.8 107.8
Homeovvnership • --------------------- 107.1 108.4 108.7 108.9
Fuel and utilities·----------------------- 106.4 107.2 107.1 107.0
Fuel oil and coal ______________________ 102.6 102.1 101.4 100.9
Gas and electricity-------------------- 107.2 108.0 108.1 ** 107.9
Household furnishings & operation _______ 102.5 102.9 102.9* 102.8
Apparel and upkeep• _____________________ 104.7 105.7 105.7 105.5
Men's and boys'------------------------- 104.7 106.2 106.3 106.0
Women's and girls'---------------------- 101.2 102.3 102.2 101.9
Footvvear ------------------------------ 110.6 111.0 111.0 110.8
Transportation --------------------------- 108.3 109.1 109.2 109.4*
Private -------------------------------- 106.9 107.7 107.8 107.9
Public --------------------------------- 117.1 118.6 118.9** 119.0
Health and recreation ____________________ 111.9 113.5 113.5 113.7
Medical care --------------------------- 117.4 119.1 119.3 119.5
Personal care -------------------------- 108.0 108.9 109.1 109.3
Reading and recreation _________________ 112.1 114.1 114.0 114.1
Other goods and services• _________________ 108.0 108.7 108.7 108.9
Aug.
1964
108.2
106.9
105.3*
115.3
107.2
108.8
107.9*
109.2
107.1
100.9*
108.2
102.6
105.3
106.0
101.3
110.8
109.3
107.9
119.1 **
113.8
119.8
109.4
114.2
108.9
'The Nevv Series for Urban Wage-earner and Clerical-vvorker families (excluding single vvorkers) is iden­tical
vvith the Index above, except vvhere marked by asterisks. Indexes marked by * are 0.1 higher than the
corresponding indexes for families, and those indicated by ** are 0.1 lovver.
• Also includes hotel and motel rates not shovvn separately.
'Includes home purchase, mortgage interest, taxes, insurance, and maintenance and repairs.
• Also includes telephone, vvater, and sevverage service not shovvn separately.
• Also includes infants' vvear, sevving materials, jevvelry, and apparel upkeep services not shovvn separately.
• Includes tobacco, alcoholic beverages, and funeral, legal, and bank service charges.
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics
Table 2:-Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earner and Clerical Worker Families (Old Series)
(1957-59=100)
Group
All items ----------------------------------
FoFoodo d- -a-t- -h-o-m--e -_-_-__-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_- -_
Food avvay from home _________________ _
Housing ---------------------------------
Rent ----------------------------------
Gas and electricity----------------------
Solid fuels and fuel oiL ________________ _
Housefurnishings ----------------------­Household
operation --------------------
Apparel --------------------------------­Men's
and boys'------------------------­Women's
and girls'---------------------­Footvvear
-----------------------------­Other
apparel --------------------------
Transportation ---------------------------
Private -------------------------------­Public
--------------------------------­Medical
care ----------------------------­PReerasdoinnagl
acnadr e re-c-r-e-a-t-io-n-- -_-_-_-_-_-__-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_- -_
Other goods and services _________________ _
106.6
105.0
103.4
113.1
105.9
106.7
108.1
102.1
98.5
110.2
103.9
104.4
101.2
110.6
101.0
107.4
106.1
116.6
116.8
107.8
110.9
107.6
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics
107.8
105.6
103.8
114.9
107.2
107.5
106.8
106.5
98.9
111.7
104.4
105.4
101.5
111.2
101.4
108.9
107.3
119.4
118.8
109.0
113.9
108.5
108.0
106.1
104.3
115.1
107.3
107.7
108.4
105.1
99.0
112.0
104.6
105.8
101.3
111.4
101.6
108.7
107.1
119.6
119.1
109.0
114.3
108.5
May
1964
107.9
105.8
104.0
115.3
107.2
107.8
108.5
103.3
99.0
112.2
104.7
106.0
101.5
111.6
101.6
108.7
107.0
119.6
119.4
109.1
114.1
108.4
J une
1964
108.2
106.5
104.7
115.4
107.3
107.9
108.5
102.7
99.0
112.1
104.7
106.1
101.4
111.6
101.6
109.0
107.4
119.6
119.5
109.5
114.3
108.5
23
Item
All commodities ---------------------------------------­Food
and tobacco ------------------------------------­Clothing
--------------------------------------------­IIousehold
operation ---------------------------------­Household
furnishings --------------------------------
Building materials, house _______________ _
Auto and auto supplies------------------==============
104
104
109
107
96
101
101
Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Statistical Reporting Service.
105
THREE NEW PUBLICATIONS
Sept.
1964
105 105 105 105
107
110
108
96
101
103
A GUIDE TO BUDGETING FOR THE YOUNG COUPLE. Home and Garden Bulletin No.
98 (August 1964). Single copy free from Office of Information, USDA, Washington, D.C.,
20250. From Supt. of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 20402,
10 cents a copy.
Newlyweds turning to this bulletin find reassurance that wise money management is less
frightening than rumored. Step-by-step procedure tells how to establish short- and long-range
goals, set up a trial budget, keep a record of expenditures, and evaluate and adjust a budget to
changing family circumstances. This is one of the bulletins now included in the Bride's Packet
of USDA Publications.
CONSUMER'S QUICK CREDIT GUIDE. Pocket-size folder (June 1964). Single copy free
from Office of Information, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C., 20250. Addi­tional
copies available at 5 cents each or $2.50 per hundred from Supt. of Documents, U.S. Gov­ernment
Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 20402.
This folder translates credit charges from terms used by merchants and lenders to simple
annual rates. An example showing the way to figure the dollar cost of credit is given. Consumers
about to sign installment or loan contracts will find the list of precautions helpful.
The Agricultural Research Service has cooperated with the National Science Teachers As­sociation
in producing a paperback book entitled NUTRITION SCIE~qE AND. YOU, by Dr.
Olaf Mickelsen. This is part of a program of ARS to supply authentic mformahon for school
and community nutrition programs. The book i~ not. a textbook ~ut is an. advent~re story of
!llan's continuing quest to understand the relationship of food to h1s well-bemg. It 1s good read­mg
for adults.
The 127-page book is for sale for 50 cents per copy by the Scholastic Book Service, 904 Syl­van
Avenue, Englewood Cliffs, N.J. It is not available from the USDA.
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20250
OFFICIAL BUSINESS
POSTAGE AND FEES PAID
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE